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1. Requena  T, Burton  J, Matsuki  T, Munro  K, Simon  MA, Tanaka  R, Watanabe  K, Tannock  GW,     ( 2002 )

Identification, detection, and enumeration of human bifidobacterium species by PCR targeting the transaldolase gene.

Applied and environmental microbiology 68 (5)
PMID : 11976117  :   DOI  :   10.1128/aem.68.5.2420-2427.2002     PMC  :   PMC127544    
Abstract >>
Methods that enabled the identification, detection, and enumeration of Bifidobacterium species by PCR targeting the transaldolase gene were tested. Bifidobacterial species isolated from the feces of human adults and babies were identified by PCR amplification of a 301-bp transaldolase gene sequence and comparison of the relative migrations of the DNA fragments in denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Two subtypes of Bifidobacterium longum, five subtypes of Bifidobacterium adolescentis, and two subtypes of Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum could be differentiated using PCR-DGGE. Bifidobacterium angulatum and B. catenulatum type cultures could not be differentiated from each other. Bifidobacterial species were also detected directly in fecal samples by this combination of PCR and DGGE. The number of species detected was less than that detected by PCR using species-specific primers targeting 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Real-time quantitative PCR targeting a 110-bp transaldolase gene sequence was used to enumerate bifidobacteria in fecal samples. Real-time quantitative PCR measurements of bifidobacteria in fecal samples from adults correlated well with results obtained by culture when either a 16S rDNA sequence or the transaldolase gene sequence was targeted. In the case of samples from infants, 16S rDNA-targeted PCR was superior to PCR targeting the transaldolase gene for the quantification of bifidobacterial populations.
KeywordMeSH Terms
2. Jian  W, Zhu  L, Dong  X,     ( 2001 )

New approach to phylogenetic analysis of the genus Bifidobacterium based on partial HSP60 gene sequences.

International journal of systematic and evolutionary microbiology 51 (Pt 5)
PMID : 11594590  :   DOI  :   10.1099/00207713-51-5-1633    
Abstract >>
The partial 60 kDa heat-shock protein (HSP60) genes of 36 Bifidobacterium strains representing 30 different Bifidobacterium species and subspecies and of the type strain of Gardnerella vaginalis were cloned and sequenced using a pair of universal degenerate HSP60 PCR primers. The HSP60 DNA sequence similarities were determined for the taxa at various ranks as follows: 99.4-100% within the same species, 96% at the subspecies level, and 73-96% (mean 85%) at the interspecies level (and 98% in the case of two groups of closely related species, Bifidobacterium animalis and Bifidobacterium lactis, Bifidobacterium infantis, Bifidobacterium longum and Bifidobacterium suis, whose 165 rRNA sequence similarities are all above 99%). The HSP60 DNA sequence similarities between different Bifidobacterium species and G. vaginalis, a closely related bacterium according to 16S rRNA analysis, ranged from 71 to 79% (mean 75%). Although the topology of the phylogenetic tree constructed using the HSP60 sequences determined was basically similar to that for 16S rRNA, it seemed to be more clear-cut for species delineation, and the clustering was better correlated with the DNA base composition (mol% G+C) than that of the 16S rRNA tree. In the HSP60 phylogenetic tree, all of the high-G+C (55-67 mol%) bifidobacteria were grouped into one cluster, whereas the low-G+C species Bifidobacterium inopinatum (45 mol %) formed a separate cluster with G. vaginalis (42 mol%) and Bifidobacterium denticolens (55 mol%); a Bifidobacterium species of intermediate G+C content formed another cluster between the two. This study demonstrates that the highly conserved and ubiquitous HSP60 gene is an accurate and convenient tool for phylogenetic analysis of the genus Bifidobacterium.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Sequence Analysis, DNA
3. Ruas-Madiedo  P, Moreno  JA, Salazar  N, Delgado  S, Mayo  B, Margolles  A, de Los Reyes-Gavilán  CG,     ( 2007 )

Screening of exopolysaccharide-producing Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains isolated from the human intestinal microbiota.

Applied and environmental microbiology 73 (13)
PMID : 17483284  :   DOI  :   10.1128/AEM.02470-06     PMC  :   PMC1932768    
Abstract >>
Using phenotypic approaches, we have detected that 17% of human intestinal Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains could be exopolysaccharide (EPS) producers. However, PCR techniques showed that only 7% harbored genes related to the synthesis of heteropolysaccharides. This is the first work to screen the human intestinal ecosystem for the detection of EPS-producing strains.
KeywordMeSH Terms
4. Masco  L, Van Hoorde  K, De Brandt  E, Swings  J, Huys  G,     ( 2006 )

Antimicrobial susceptibility of Bifidobacterium strains from humans, animals and probiotic products.

The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy 58 (1)
PMID : 16698847  :   DOI  :   10.1093/jac/dkl197    
Abstract >>
The aim of this study was to assess the antimicrobial susceptibility of a taxonomically diverse set of Bifidobacterium strains to different classes of antimicrobial agents using a recently described medium. The susceptibility of 100 strains encompassing 11 bifidobacterial species originating from humans, animals and probiotic products to 12 antimicrobial agents was tested by agar overlay disc diffusion. Based on these results, one or two strains per species were selected for susceptibility testing to nine antibiotics by broth microdilution using the Lactic acid bacteria Susceptibility test Medium (LSM) supplemented with cysteine. The genotypic basis of atypical tetracycline resistance was further characterized using PCR, Southern blotting and partial sequencing. Based on the distribution of inhibition zone diameters and MIC values, all strains tested were susceptible to amoxicillin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, quinupristin/dalfopristin, rifampicin and vancomycin. Our data also reinforce earlier observations indicating that bifidobacteria are intrinsically resistant to gentamicin, sulfamethoxazole and polymyxin B. Susceptibility to trimethoprim, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, tetracycline and minocycline was variable. The tet(W) gene was responsible for tetracycline resistance in 15 strains including 7 probiotic isolates belonging to the taxa Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis and Bifidobacterium bifidum. This gene was present in a single copy on the chromosome and did not appear to be associated with the conjugative transposon TnB1230 previously found in tet(W)-containing Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens. The use of the LSM + cysteine medium allowed us to discriminate between intrinsic and atypical resistance properties of bifidobacteria and sets the scene for future definition of epidemiological cut-off values for all important Bifidobacterium species. The presence of an acquired tet(W) gene in several probiotic product isolates stresses the need for a minimal safety evaluation during the selection of Bifidobacterium strains for probiotic use.
KeywordMeSH Terms
5. Gibbs  MJ, Smeianov  VV, Steele  JL, Upcroft  P, Efimov  BA,     ( 2006 )

Two families of rep-like genes that probably originated by interspecies recombination are represented in viral, plasmid, bacterial, and parasitic protozoan genomes.

Molecular biology and evolution 23 (1��6��)
PMID : 16531508  :   DOI  :   10.1093/molbev/msj122    
Abstract >>
Two families of genes related to, and including, rolling circle replication initiator protein (Rep) genes were defined by sequence similarity and by evidence of intergene family recombination. The Rep genes of circoviruses were the best characterized members of the "RecRep1 family." Other members of the RecRep1 family were Rep-like genes found in the genomes of the Canarypox virus, Entamoeba histolytica, and Giardia duodenalis and in a plasmid, p4M, from the Gram-positive bacterium, Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum. The "RecRep2 family" comprised some previously identified Rep-like genes from plasmids of phytoplasmas and similar Rep-like genes from the genomes of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactococcus lactis, and Phytoplasma asteris. Both RecRep1 and RecRep2 proteins have a nucleotide-binding domain significantly similar to the helicases (2C proteins) of picorna-like viruses. On the N-terminal side of the nucleotide binding domain, RecRep1 proteins have a domain significantly similar to one found in nanovirus Reps, whereas RecRep2 proteins have a domain significantly similar to one in the Reps of pLS1 plasmids. We speculate that RecRep genes have been transferred from viruses or plasmids to parasitic protozoan and bacterial genomes and that Rep proteins were themselves involved in the original recombination events that generated the ancestral RecRep genes.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Evolution, Molecular
Gene Transfer, Horizontal
Genome, Bacterial
Genome, Protozoan
Genome, Viral
6. Ventura  M, Canchaya  C, Bernini  V, Del Casale  A, Dellaglio  F, Neviani  E, Fitzgerald  GF, van Sinderen  D,     ( 2005 )

Genetic characterization of the Bifidobacterium breve UCC 2003 hrcA locus.

Applied and environmental microbiology 71 (12)
PMID : 16332909  :   DOI  :   10.1128/AEM.71.12.8998-9007.2005     PMC  :   PMC1317471    
Abstract >>
The bacterial heat shock response is characterized by the elevated expression of a number of chaperone complexes and transcriptional regulators, including the DnaJ and the HrcA proteins. Genome analysis of Bifidobacterium breve UCC 2003 revealed a second copy of a dnaJ gene, named dnaJ2, which is flanked by the hrcA gene in a genetic constellation that appears to be unique to the actinobacteria. Phylogenetic analysis using 53 bacterial dnaJ sequences, including both dnaJ1 and dnaJ2 sequences, suggests that these genes have followed a different evolutionary development. Furthermore, the B. breve UCC 2003 dnaJ2 gene seems to be regulated in a manner that is different from that of the previously characterized dnaJ1 gene. The dnaJ2 gene, which was shown to be part of a 2.3-kb bicistronic operon with hrcA, was induced by osmotic shock but not significantly by heat stress. This induction pattern is unlike those of other characterized dnaJ genes and may be indicative of a unique stress adaptation strategy by this commensal microorganism.
KeywordMeSH Terms
7. Ventura  M, Zink  R, Fitzgerald  GF, van Sinderen  D,     ( 2005 )

Gene structure and transcriptional organization of the dnaK operon of Bifidobacterium breve UCC 2003 and application of the operon in bifidobacterial tracing.

Applied and environmental microbiology 71 (1)
PMID : 15640225  :   DOI  :   10.1128/AEM.71.1.487-500.2005     PMC  :   PMC544267    
Abstract >>
The incorporation and delivery of bifidobacterial strains as probiotic components in many food preparations expose these microorganisms to a multitude of environmental insults, including heat and osmotic stresses. We characterized the dnaK gene region of Bifidobacterium breve UCC 2003. Sequence analysis of the dnaK locus revealed four genes with the organization dnaK-grpE-dnaJ-ORF1, whose deduced protein products display significant similarity to corresponding chaperones found in other bacteria. Northern hybridization and real-time LightCycler PCR analysis revealed that the transcription of the dnaK operon was strongly induced by osmotic shock but was not induced significantly by heat stress. A 4.4-kb polycistronic mRNA, which represented the transcript of the complete dnaK gene region, was detected. Many other small transcripts, which were assumed to have resulted from intensive processing or degradation of this polycistronic mRNA, were identified. The transcription start site of the dnaK operon was determined by primer extension. Phylogenetic analysis of the available bifidobacterial grpE and dnaK genes suggested that the evolutionary development of these genes has been similar. The phylogeny derived from the various bifidobacterial grpE and dnaK sequences is consistent with that derived from 16S rRNA. The use of these genes in bifidobacterial species as an alternative or complement to the 16S rRNA gene marker provides sequence signatures that allow a high level of discrimination between closely related species of this genus.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Adenosine Triphosphatases
Bacterial Proteins
Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial
Molecular Chaperones
8. Ventura  M, Canchaya  C, Zink  R, Fitzgerald  GF, van Sinderen  D,     ( 2004 )

Characterization of the groEL and groES loci in Bifidobacterium breve UCC 2003: genetic, transcriptional, and phylogenetic analyses.

Applied and environmental microbiology 70 (10)
PMID : 15466567  :   DOI  :   10.1128/AEM.70.10.6197-6209.2004     PMC  :   PMC522111    
Abstract >>
The bacterial heat shock response is characterized by the elevated expression of a number of chaperone complexes, including the GroEL and GroES proteins. The groES and groEL genes are highly conserved among eubacteria and are typically arranged as an operon. Genome analysis of Bifidobacterium breve UCC 2003 revealed that the groES and groEL genes are located in different chromosomal regions. The heat inducibility of the groEL and groES genes of B. breve UCC 2003 was verified by slot blot analysis. Northern blot analyses showed that the cspA gene is cotranscribed with the groEL gene, while the groES gene is transcribed as a monocistronic unit. The transcription initiation sites of these two mRNAs were determined by primer extension. Sequence and transcriptional analyses of the region flanking the groEL and groES genes of various bifidobacteria revealed similar groEL-cspA and groES gene units, suggesting a novel genetic organization of these chaperones. Phylogenetic analysis of the available bifidobacterial groES and groEL genes suggested that these genes evolved differently. Discrepancies in the phylogenetic positioning of groES-based trees make this gene an unreliable molecular marker. On the other hand, the bifidobacterial groEL gene sequences can be used as an alternative to current methods for tracing Bifidobacterium species, particularly because they allow a high level of discrimination between closely related species of this genus.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Genes, Bacterial
9. Kim  BJ, Kim  HY, Yun  YJ, Kim  BJ, Kook  YH,     ( 2010 )

Differentiation of Bifidobacterium species using partial RNA polymerase {beta}-subunit (rpoB) gene sequences.

International journal of systematic and evolutionary microbiology 60 (Pt 12)
PMID : 20061504  :   DOI  :   10.1099/ijs.0.020339-0    
Abstract >>
Partial RNA polymerase �]-subunit gene (rpoB) sequences (315 bp) were determined and used to differentiate the type strains of 23 species of the genus Bifidobacterium. The sequences were compared with those of the partial hsp60 (604 bp) and 16S rRNA genes (1475 or 1495 bp). The rpoB gene sequences showed nucleotide sequence similarities ranging from 84.1 % to 99.0 %, while the similarities of the hsp60 sequences ranged from 78.5 % to 99.7 % and the 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities ranged from 89.4 % to 99.2 %. The phylogenetic trees constructed from the sequences of these three genes showed similar clustering patterns, with the exception of several species. The Bifidobacterium catenulatum-Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum, Bifidobacterium pseudolongum subsp. pseudolongum-Bifidobacterium pseudolongum subsp. globosum and Bifidobacterium gallinarum-Bifidobacterium pullorum-Bifidobacterium saeculare groups were more clearly differentiated in the partial rpoB and hsp60 gene sequence trees than they were in the 16S rRNA gene tree. Based on sequence similarities and tree topologies, the newly determined rpoB gene sequences are suitable molecular markers for the differentiation of species of the genus Bifidobacterium and support various other molecular tools used to determine the relationships among species of this genus.
KeywordMeSH Terms
10. Milani  C, Mangifesta  M, Mancabelli  L, Lugli  GA, James  K, Duranti  S, Turroni  F, Ferrario  C, Ossiprandi  MC, van Sinderen  D, Ventura  M,     ( 2017 )

Unveiling bifidobacterial biogeography across the mammalian branch of the tree of life.

The ISME journal 11 (12)
PMID : 28837128  :   DOI  :   10.1038/ismej.2017.138     PMC  :   PMC5702741    
Abstract >>
Internally transcribed spacer (ITS) rRNA profiling is a novel tool for detailed analysis of microbial populations at low taxonomic ranks. Here we exploited this approach to explore species-level biogeography of the Bifidobacterium genus across 291 adult mammals. These include humans and 13 other primates, domesticated animals, such as dogs, cats, cows, sheep, goats, horses and pigs, and 46 additional species. The collected profiles revealed the presence of 89 putative novel bifidobacterial taxa in addition to 45 previously described species. Remarkably, in contrast to what is currently known for many gut commensals, we did not observe host-specialization among bifidobacterial species but rather their widespread distribution across mammals. Moreover, ITS rRNA profiling of wild relatives of domesticated dogs, rabbits and pigs clearly indicates that domestication and close contact with humans have impacted on the composition of the fecal bifidobacterial population. These data were complemented by analysis of bifidobacterial communities in milk of eight mammalian families, showing that bifidobacteria represent prototypical early gut microbiota members which are inherited by newborns from their lactating mother. Thus this study highlights the role of bifidobacteria as pioneering gut colonizers of a wide range of mammals.
KeywordMeSH Terms
11.     ( 2013 )

Genetic diversity of bile salt hydrolases among human intestinal bifidobacteria.

Current microbiology 67 (3)
PMID : 23591474  :   DOI  :   10.1007/s00284-013-0362-1     PMC  :   PMC3722454    
Abstract >>
This study analyzes the application of degenerative primers for the screening of bile salt hydrolase-encoding genes (bsh) in various intestinal bifidobacteria. In the first stage, the design and evaluation of the universal PCR primers for amplifying the partial coding sequence of bile salt hydrolase in bifidobacteria were performed. The amplified bsh gene fragments were sequenced and the obtained sequences were compared to the bsh genes present in GenBank. The determined results showed the utility of the designed PCR primers for the amplification of partial gene encoding bile salt hydrolase in different intestinal bifidobacteria. Moreover, sequence analysis revealed that bile salt hydrolase-encoding genes may be used as valuable molecular markers for phylogenetic studies and identification of even closely related members of the genus Bifidobacterium.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Genetic Variation
12. Wang  N, Hang  X, Zhang  M, Liu  X, Yang  H,     ( 2017 )

Analysis of newly detected tetracycline resistance genes and their flanking sequences in human intestinal bifidobacteria.

Scientific reports 7 (1)
PMID : 28740169  :   DOI  :   10.1038/s41598-017-06595-0     PMC  :   PMC5524971    
Abstract >>
Due to tetracycline abuse, the safe bifidobacteria in the human gastrointestinal intestinal tract (GIT) may serve as a reservoir of tetracycline resistance genes. In the present investigation of 92 bifidobacterial strains originating from the human GIT, tetracycline resistance in 29 strains was mediated by the tet(W), tet(O) or tet(S) gene, and this is the first report of tet(O)- and tet(S)-mediated tetracycline resistance in bifidobacteria. Antibiotic resistance genes harbored by bifidobacteria are transferred from other bacteria. However, the characteristics of the spread and integration of tetracycline resistance genes into the human intestinal bifidobacteria chromosome are poorly understood. Here, conserved sequences were identified in bifidobacterial strains positive for tet(W), tet(O), or tet(S), including the tet(W), tet(O), or tet(S) and their partial flanking sequences, which exhibited identity with the sequences in multiple human intestinal pathogens, and genes encoding 23 S rRNA, an ATP transporter, a Cpp protein, and a membrane-spanning protein were flanking by the 1920-bp tet(W), 1920-bp tet(O), 1800-bp tet(O) and 252-bp tet(S) in bifidobacteria, respectively. These findings suggest that tetracycline resistance genes harbored by human intestinal bifidobacteria might initially be transferred from pathogens and that each kind of tetracycline resistance gene might tend to insert in the vicinity of specific bifidobacteria genes.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Genome, Bacterial

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