( 2002 )
Application of RNA polymerase beta-subunit gene (rpoB) sequences for the molecular differentiation of Legionella species.
PMID : 12089300 : DOI : 10.1128/jcm.40.7.2653-2658.2002 PMC : PMC120607
The nucleotide sequences of the partial rpoB gene were determined from 38 Legionella species, including 15 serogroups of Legionella pneumophila. These sequences were then used to infer the phylogenetic relationships among the Legionella species in order to establish a molecular differentiation method appropriate for them. The sequences (300 bp) and the phylogenetic tree of rpoB were compared to those from analyses using 16S rRNA gene and mip sequences. The trees inferred from these three gene sequences revealed significant differences. This sequence incongruence between the rpoB tree and the other trees might have originated from the high frequency of synonymous base substitutions and/or from horizontal gene transfer among the Legionella species. The nucleotide variation of rpoB enabled more evident differentiation among the Legionella species than was achievable by the 16S rRNA gene and even by mip in some cases. Two subspecies of L. pneumophila (L. pneumophila subsp. pneumophila and subsp. fraseri) were clearly distinguished by rpoB but not by 16S rRNA gene and mip analysis. One hundred and five strains isolated from patient tissues and environments in Korea and Japan could be identified by comparison of rpoB sequence similarity and phylogenetic trees. These results suggest that the partial sequences of rpoB determined in this study might be applicable to the molecular differentiation of Legionella species.
( 2011 )
Development of a DNA microarray for detection and identification of Legionella pneumophila and ten other pathogens in drinking water.
PMID : 21276629 : DOI : 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2011.01.014
The safety and accessibility of drinking water are major concerns throughout the world. Consumption of water contaminated with infectious agents, toxic chemicals or radiological hazards represents a significant health risk and is strongly associated with mortality. Therefore, we have developed an oligonucleotide-based microarray using the sequences of 16S-23S rDNA internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS) and the gyrase subunit B gene (gyrB) found in the most prevalent and devastating waterborne pathogenic agents. This new diagnostic contains 26 specific probes and can simultaneously detect Aeromonas hydrophila, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Legionella pneumophila, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio choleraeo, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Yersinia enterocolitica and Leptospira interrogans. Testing was carried out against a total of 218 bacterial strains, including 53 representative strains, 103 clinical isolates and 62 strains of other bacterial species belonging to 10 genera and 48 species. The results were specific and reproducible, with a detection sensitivity of 0.1 ng DNA or 10(4)CFU/ml achieved for pure cultures of each target organism. The diluted cultures and real drinking water samples were tested by the microarray with 100% accuracy. This novel diagnostic method is superior in time- and labor-efficiency to conventional bacterial culture and antiserum agglutination, and can be readily applied to epidemiological surveillance and other food safety applications.
( 2012 )
Genetic speciation of environmental Legionella isolates in Thailand.
PMID : 22504352 : DOI : 10.1016/j.meegid.2012.03.025
Legionella-like organisms were isolated during 2003-2007 from various water resources by culturing on selective media of Wadowsky-Yee-Okuda agar. The 256 isolates were identified as belonging to the Legionella genus based on detection of 108 bp PCR product of the 5S rRNA gene, while the inclusion as Legionella pneumophila were confirmed by PCR detection of a specific mip gene region of 168 bp. The 50 isolates, identified as non-pneumophila, were then subjected to DNA tree analysis, based on mip gene of ~650 bp and rnpB genes product ranged from 304 to 354 bp. Phylogenetic tree was constructed to predict their species in relative to the available database. The isolates of which their speciation, based on those two genes were inconclusive, were then investigated for the almost full-length of 16S rRNA sequences. The isolates were assigned as 16 known Legionella species, and proposed seven novel species based on their unique 16S rRNA sequence.
( 2012 )
Legionella steelei sp. nov., isolated from human respiratory specimens in California, USA, and South Australia.
PMID : 21948093 : DOI : 10.1099/ijs.0.035709-0
Legionella-like bacteria were isolated from the respiratory tract of two patients in California, USA, and South Australia, but were not thought to cause disease. These bacteria, strains F2632 and IMVS-3376(T), were found to have identical Legionella macrophage infectivity potentiator (mip) gene sequences and were therefore further characterized to determine their genetic and phenotypic relatedness and properties. Both of these Gram-negative-staining bacterial strains grew on buffered charcoal yeast extract medium, were cysteine auxotrophs and made a characteristic diffusible bright yellow fluorescent pigment, with one strain making a late appearing colony-bound blue-white fluorescent pigment. The optimal in vitro growth temperature was 35 �XC, with very poor growth at 37 �XC in broth or on solid media. There was no growth in human A549 cells at either 35 or 37 �XC, but excellent growth in Acanthamoeba castellani at 30 �XC and poorer growth at 35 �XC. Phylogenetic analysis of these bacteria was performed by sequence analysis of 16S rRNA, mip, ribonuclease P, ribosomal polymerase B and zinc metalloprotease genes. These studies confirmed that the new strains represented a single novel species of the genus Legionella for which the name Legionella steelei sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is IMVS-3376(T) (= IMVS 3113(T) = ATCC BAA-2169(T)).
( 1998 )
Sequence-based classification scheme for the genus Legionella targeting the mip gene.
PMID : 9620377 : PMC : PMC104877
The identification and speciation of strains of Legionella is often difficult, and even the more successful chromatographic classification techniques have struggled to discriminate newly described species. A sequence-based genotypic classification scheme is reported, targeting approximately 700 nucleotide bases of the mip gene and utilizing gene amplification and direct amplicon sequencing. With the exception of Legionella geestiana, for which an amplicon was not produced, the scheme clearly and unambiguously discriminated among the remaining 39 Legionella species and correctly grouped 26 additional serogroup and reference strains within those species. Additionally, the genotypic classification of approximately 150 wild strains from several continents was consistent with their phenotypic classification, with the exception of a few strains where serological cross-reactivity was complex, potentially confusing the latter classification. Strains thought to represent currently uncharacterized species were also found to be genotypically unique. The scheme is technically simple for a laboratory with even basic molecular capabilities and equipment, if access to a sequencing laboratory is available.
( 1997 )
Interspecies sequence differences in the Mip protein from the genus Legionella: implications for function and evolutionary relatedness.
PMID : 9350870 : DOI : 10.1046/j.1365-2958.1997.5471908.x
The nucleotide sequence of the mip genes and their inferred amino acid sequences were determined from 35 Legionella species and compared with the published sequences for L. pneumophila, L. micdadei and L. longbeachae. The sequences were 69-97% conserved at the nucleotide level and 82-99% at the amino acid level, with total conservation of amino acids determined to be associated with sites known to be involved in peptidyl prolyl cis-trans isomerase activity. No apparent difference could be determined in the arrangement of amino acids that would predict a functional difference in Mip from species associated with disease and Mip from species isolated only from the environment. Additionally, a phylogenetic comparison of the sequences with published 16S RNA sequences, using both genetic distance and maximum parsimony methods, was performed. Few relationships were apparent that were well supported by both data sets, the most robust being a clade comprising ([(cincinnatiensis, longbeachae, sainthelensi, santicrucis) gratiana] (moravica, quateirensis, shakespearei, worsleiensis) anisa, bozemanii, cherrii, dumoffii, gormanii, jordanis, parisiensis, pneumophila, steigerwaltii, tucsonensis, and wadsworthii).