|Taxonomy Citation ID||Reference|
|4097||Judicial Commission of the International Committee on Systematic Bacteriology. "VIIIth International Congress of Microbiology and Applied Bacteriology. Minutes of the meetings, 17 and 22August 1996, Jerusalem, Israel." Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. (1997) 47:240-241. [No PubMed record available.]|
|5524||Bergey, D.H., Harrison, F.C., Breed, R.S., Hammer B.W., and Huntoon, F.M. Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 1st ed. (1923) The Williams and Wilkins Co., Baltimore, pp. 1-442. [No PubMed record available.]|
|4096||Olsen, I., Johnson, J.L., Moore, L.V.H., and Moore, W.E.C. "Rejection of Clostridium putrificum and conservation of Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium sporogenes. Request for an opinion." Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. (1995) 45:414. [No PubMed record available.]|
|4099||Skerman, V.B.D., McGowan, V., and Sneath, P.H.A. (editors): "Approved lists of bacterial names." Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. (1980) 30:225-420. [See 'Approved Lists of Bacterial Names' LinkOut below.]|
( 1998 )
Phylogeny and taxonomy of the food-borne pathogen Clostridium botulinum and its neurotoxins.
PMID : 15244052
Until recently, all clostridia producing neurotoxins able to cause paralysis symptomatic of botulism were deemed to be Clostridium botulinum. Defining Cl. botulinum on the basis of this single phenotypic trait has resulted in the species encompassing metabolically very diverse organisms, and four distinct phenotypic groups are recognized within this taxon (designated groups I-IV). Nucleic acid hybridization and 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing studies have revealed the presence of four phylogenetically distinct lineages within the species, which correlate with these phenotypic divisions. In addition to marked phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity between groups, the taxonomy of the species is further complicated by the existence of strains which are closely related, if not genetically identifiable, to members of each Cl. botulinum group, but are non-toxigenic. Furthermore, strains of species other than Cl. botulinum (viz. Cl. baratii, Cl. butyricum) have been found which express botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT). Great advances have been made in recent years in elucidating the nucleotide sequences of genes encoding the various BoNT antigenic types (A through to G). Genealogical trees derived from BoNTs show marked discordance with those depicting 'natural' relationships inferred from 16S rRNA and phenotypic clusters, and strong evidence exists for BoNT gene transfer between some groups of Cl. botulinum (e.g. groups I and II), and with non-botulinum species. Botulinum neurotoxin is produced by Cl. botulinum as a non-covalently bound progenitor toxin complex of two or more protein components. Information on the evolutionary histories of the various non-toxic progenitor proteins is currently limited, although there is evidence of gene recombination. In particular, chimera-like or mosaic non-toxic-non-haemagglutinins (NTNH) genes in group I Cl. botulinum have been described, and it is now apparent that the phylogeny of the NTNHs is not going to 'mirror' that of botulinal neurotoxins, although their genes are physically contiguous. In this article, the current state of knowledge of the phylogenetics of the species Cl. botulinum and its neurotoxins is reviewed, and a view is presented that a nomenclature based rigidly on BoNT production is no longer tenable.
|5713||Trevisan, V. I generie e le specie della Batteriacee. (1889) Zanaboni and Gabuzzi, Milan, pp. 1-35. [No PubMed record available.]|
|4098||Skerman, V.B.D., McGowan, V., and Sneath, P.H.A. (editors): "Approved lists of bacterial names." Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. (1980) 30:225-420. [See 'Approved Lists of Bacterial Names' LinkOut below.]||4095||
( 1999 )
Rejection of Clostridium putrificum and conservation of Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium sporogenes-Opinion 69. Judicial Commission of the International Committee on Systematic Bacteriology.
PMID : 10028279 DOI : 10.1099/00207713-49-1-339
The Judicial Commission rejected the name Clostridium putrificum while conserving Clostridium botulinum for toxigenic strains and conserving Clostridium sporogenes for non-toxigenic strains.