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Taxonomy Citation ID Reference
6044 Brenner  DJ, McWhorter  AC, Knutson  JK, Steigerwalt  AG,     ( 1982 )

Escherichia vulneris: a new species of Enterobacteriaceae associated with human wounds.

Journal of clinical microbiology 15 (6)
PMID : 7107843 PMC  :   PMC272265    
Abstract >>
The name Escherichia vulneris sp. nov. (formerly called Alma group 1 and Enteric group 1 by the Centers for Disease Control and API group 2 by Analytab Products, Inc.) is proposed for a group of isolates from the United States and Canada, 74% of which were from human wounds. E. vulneris is a gram-negative, oxidase-negative, fermentative, motile rod with the characteristics of the family Enterobacteriaceae. Biochemical reactions characteristic of 61 E. vulneris strains were positive tests for methyl red, malonate, and lysine decarboxylase; a delayed positive test for arginine dihydrolase; acid production from d-mannitol, l-arabinose, raffinose, l-rhamnose, d-xylose, trehalose, cellobiose, and melibiose; negative tests for Voges-Proskauer, indole, urea, H(2)S, citrate, ornithine decarboxylase, phenylalanine deaminase, and DNase; and no acid from dulcitol, adonitol, myo-inositol, and d-sorbitol. Two-thirds of the strains produced yellow pigment. Most strains gave negative or delayed positive reactions in tests for lactose, sucrose, and KCN. The E. vulneris strains tested were resistant to penicillin and clindamycin, were resistant or showed intermediate zones of inhibition to carbenicillin and erythromycin, and were susceptible to 14 other antibiotics. DNA relatedness of 15 E. vulneris strains to the type strain averaged 75% in reactions at 60 degrees C and 69% in reactions at 75 degrees C, indicating that they comprise a separate species. DNA relatedness to other species in the family Enterobacteriaceae was 6 to 39%, an indication that this new species belongs in the family. E. vulneris showed the highest relatedness to species of Escherichia (25 to 39%) and Enterobacter (24 to 35%). On the basis of biochemical similarity, the new species was placed in the genus Escherichia. The type strain of E. vulneris is ATCC 33821 (CDC 875-72).
KeywordMeSH Terms
52699 Alnajar  S, Gupta  RS,     ( 2017 )

Phylogenomics and comparative genomic studies delineate six main clades within the family Enterobacteriaceae and support the reclassification of several polyphyletic members of the family.

Infection, genetics and evolution : journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases 54 (N/A)
PMID : 28658607 DOI  :   10.1016/j.meegid.2017.06.024    
Abstract >>
The family Enterobacteriaceae harbors many important pathogens, however it has proven difficult to reliably distinguish different members of this family or discern their interrelationships. To understand the interrelationships among the Enterobacteriaceae species, we have constructed two comprehensive phylogenetic trees for 78 genome-sequenced Enterobacteriaceae species based on 2487 core genome proteins, and another set of 118 conserved proteins. The genome sequences of Enterobacteriaceae species were also analyzed for genetic relatedness based on average amino acid identity and 16S rRNA sequence similarity. In parallel, comparative genomic studies on protein sequences from the Enterobacteriaceae have identified 88 molecular markers in the form of conserved signature indels (CSIs) that are uniquely shared by specific members of the family. All of these multiple lines of investigations provide consistent evidence that most of the species/genera within the family can be assigned to 6 different subfamily level clades which are designated as the "Escherichia clade", "Klebsiella clade", "Enterobacter clade", "Kosakonia clade", "Cronobacter clade" and "Cedecea clade". The members of the six described clades, in addition to their distinct branching in phylogenetic trees, can now be reliably demarcated in molecular terms on the basis of multiple identified CSIs that are exclusively shared by the group members. Several additional CSIs identified in this work that are either specific for individual genera (viz. Kosakonia, Kluyvera and Escherichia-Shigella), or are present at various taxonomic depths, offer information regarding the interrelationships among the different clades. The described molecular markers provide novel means for diagnostic as well as genetic and biochemical studies on the Enterobacteriaceae species and for resolving the polyphyly of its several genera viz. Escherichia, Enterobacter and Kluyvera. On the bases of our results, we are proposing the reclassification of Escherichia vulneris and Enterobacter massiliensis into two novel genera viz. Pseudescherichia gen. nov. and Metakosakonia gen. nov., respectively. Additionally, our results also support the transfer of "Enterobacter lignolyticus" and "Kluyvera intestini" to the genera Pluralibacter and Metakosakonia, respectively.
KeywordMeSH Terms
Conserved signature indels
Enterobacteriaceae phylogeny
Enterobacteriaceae taxonomy
Molecular markers
Phylogenomics studies
Reclassification of Enterobacter and Escherichia species
52701 VALIDATION LIST No. 10. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. (1983) 33:438-440.

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