|Taxonomy Citation ID||Reference|
( 2015 )
Novel staphylococcal species that form part of a Staphylococcus aureus-related complex: the non-pigmented Staphylococcus argenteus sp. nov. and the non-human primate-associated Staphylococcus schweitzeri sp. nov.
PMID : 25269845 DOI : 10.1099/ijs.0.062752-0 PMC : PMC4298100
We define two novel species of the genus Staphylococcus that are phenotypically similar to and have near identical 16S rRNA gene sequences to Staphylococcus aureus. However, compared to S. aureus and each other, the two species, Staphylococcus argenteus sp. nov. (type strain MSHR1132(T) = DSM 28299(T) = SSI 89.005(T)) and Staphylococcus schweitzeri sp. nov. (type strain FSA084(T) = DSM 28300(T) = SSI 89.004(T)), demonstrate: 1) at a whole-genome level considerable phylogenetic distance, lack of admixture, average nucleotide identity <95 %, and inferred DNA-DNA hybridization <70 %; 2) different profiles as determined by MALDI-TOF MS; 3) a non-pigmented phenotype for S. argenteus sp. nov.; 4) S. schweitzeri sp. nov. is not detected by standard nucA PCR; 5) distinct peptidoglycan types compared to S. aureus; 6) a separate ecological niche for S. schweitzeri sp. nov.; and 7) a distinct clinical disease profile for S. argenteus sp. nov. compared to S. aureus.
|58304||Cole, K., Foster, D., Russell, J.E., Golubchik, T., Llewelyn, M., Wilson, D.J., Crook, D., and Paul, J., Modernising Medical Microbiology Consortium. "Draft genome sequences of 64 type strains of 50 species and 25 subspecies of the genus Staphylococcus Rosenbach 1884." Microbiol. Resour. Announc. (2019) 8:e00062-19.||44308||
( 2011 )
A very early-branching Staphylococcus aureus lineage lacking the carotenoid pigment staphyloxanthin.
PMID : 21813488 DOI : 10.1093/gbe/evr078 PMC : PMC3175761
Here we discuss the evolution of the northern Australian Staphylococcus aureus isolate MSHR1132 genome. MSHR1132 belongs to the divergent clonal complex 75 lineage. The average nucleotide divergence between orthologous genes in MSHR1132 and typical S. aureus is approximately sevenfold greater than the maximum divergence observed in this species to date. MSHR1132 has a small accessory genome, which includes the well-characterized genomic islands, �hSA�\ and �hSa�], suggesting that these elements were acquired well before the expansion of the typical S. aureus population. Other mobile elements show mosaic structure (the prophage ?Sa3) or evidence of recent acquisition from a typical S. aureus lineage (SCCmec, ICE6013 and plasmid pMSHR1132). There are two differences in gene repertoire compared with typical S. aureus that may be significant clues as to the genetic basis underlying the successful emergence of S. aureus as a pathogen. First, MSHR1132 lacks the genes for production of staphyloxanthin, the carotenoid pigment that confers upon S. aureus its characteristic golden color and protects against oxidative stress. The lack of pigment was demonstrated in 126 of 126 CC75 isolates. Second, a mobile clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) element is inserted into orfX of MSHR1132. Although common in other staphylococcal species, these elements are very rare within S. aureus and may impact accessory genome acquisition. The CRISPR spacer sequences reveal a history of attempted invasion by known S. aureus mobile elements. There is a case for the creation of a new taxon to accommodate this and related isolates.