|Taxonomy Citation ID||Reference|
( 1994 )
The phylogeny of the genus Clostridium: proposal of five new genera and eleven new species combinations.
PMID : 7981107 DOI : 10.1099/00207713-44-4-812
The 16S rRNA gene sequences of 34 named and unnamed clostridial strains were determined by PCR direct sequencing and were compared with more than 80 previously determined clostridial sequences and the previously published sequences of representative species of other low- G + C-content gram-positive genera, thereby providing an almost complete picture of the genealogical interrelationships of the clostridia. The results of our phylogenetic analysis corroborate and extend previous findings in showing that the genus Clostridium is extremely heterogeneous, with many species phylogenetically intermixed with other spore-forming and non-spore-forming genera. The genus Clostridium is clearly in need of major revision, and the rRNA structures defined in this and previous studies may provide a sound basis for future taxonomic restructuring. The problems and different possibilities for restructuring are discussed in light of the phenotypic and phylogenetic data, and a possible hierarchical structure for the clostridia and their close relatives is presented. On the basis of phenotypic criteria and the results of phylogenetic analyses the following five new genera and 11 new combinations are proposed: Caloramator gen. nov., with Caloramator fervidus comb. nov.; Filifactor gen. nov., with Filifactor villosus comb. nov.; Moorella gen. nov., with Moorella thermoacetica comb. nov. and Moorella thermoautotrophica comb. nov.; Oxobacter gen. nov., with Oxobacter pfennigii comb. nov.; Oxalophagus gen. nov., with Oxalophagus oxalicus comb. nov.; Eubacterium barkeri comb. nov.; Paenibacillus durum comb. nov.; Thermoanaerobacter kivui comb. nov.; Thermoanaerobacter thermocopriae comb. nov.; and Thermoanerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum comb. nov.
|11479||Skerman, V.B.D., McGowan, V., and Sneath, P.H.A. (editors). "Approved lists of bacterial names." Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. (1980) 30:225-420. [See 'Approved Lists of Bacterial Names' LinkOut below.]||3262||
( 1996 )
Anaerofilum pentosovorans gen. nov., sp. nov., and Anaerofilum agile sp. nov., two new, strictly anaerobic, mesophilic, acidogenic bacteria from anaerobic bioreactors.
PMID : 8863411 DOI : 10.1099/00207713-46-4-871
Strictly anaerobic, gram-positive, nonsporing, thin rod-shaped organisms whose cells were 0.2 to 0.6 by 3 to 6 microns were isolated from a Hoechst Biohochreaktor (strain FaeT [T = type strain]) and from the biofilm population of a fixed-film reactor treating sour whey (strain FT). Strain FT was vigorously motile during early logarithmic growth by means of peritrichously inserted flagella, while strain FaeT was seldom motile and usually possessed no flagella. During the stationary growth phase both strains formed spheroplasts. The temperature optimum was close to 37 degrees C (temperature range for growth, > or = 17 to < 45 degrees C) and the pH optimum was 7.0 to 7.4 (pH range, 6.5 to 8.0) for both strains. The two organisms grew chemoorganotrophically on a number of mono- and disaccharides, including glucose and xylose; yeast extract was required for growth. The principal fermentation products from glucose included lactate, acetate, ethanol, formate, and CO2. Hydrogen was not generated. The G + C contents of the DNAs of strains FaeT and FT were 55 and 54.5 mol%, respectively. The cell wall architecture was typical of gram-positive bacteria; the cells had an extraordinarily thin type A3 alpha' peptidoglycan layer containing muramic acid. Analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA sequences of the two new isolates demonstrated that they represent members of a new genus of bacteria in Clostridium cluster IV of the domain Bacteria and that the misclassified organism Fusobacterium prausnitzii and Clostridium leptum are among their closest relatives. The names Anaerofilum pentosovorans gen. nov., sp. nov. (type strain, strain Fae [= DSM 7168]) and Anaerofilum agile sp. nov. (type strain, strain F [= DSM 4272]) are proposed.
( 2002 )
Growth requirements and fermentation products of Fusobacterium prausnitzii, and a proposal to reclassify it as Faecalibacterium prausnitzii gen. nov., comb. nov.
PMID : 12508881 DOI : 10.1099/00207713-52-6-2141
Two newly isolated strains of obligately anaerobic bacteria from human faeces are shown here to be related to Fusobacterium prausnitzii, which is regarded as one of the most abundant colonizers of the human colon. These strains, along with Fusobacterium prausnitzii ATCC 27768(T) and 27766, are non-motile and produce butyrate, formate and lactate, but not hydrogen as fermentation products. A new finding is that all four strains produce D-lactate, but not L-lactate. The strains have a requirement for acetate in the growth medium and this may account for the previously reported requirement for rumen fluid. The DNA G+C content of the four strains is 47-57 mol%. Together with phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA sequencing, this establishes that Fusobacterium prausnitzii strains are only distantly related to Fusobacterium sensu stricto and are more closely related to members of Clostridium cluster IV (the Clostridium leptum group). It is proposed that a new genus, Faecalibacterium gen. nov. be created; this genus should include Faecalibacterium prausnitzii gen. nov., comb. nov. ATCC 27768(T) (= NCIMB 13872(T)) (formerly Fusobacterium prausnitzii) as the type species together with ATCC 27766 and the newly isolated strains A2-165 and L2-6.
( 1996 )
Phylogenetic analysis of Fusobacterium prausnitzii based upon the 16S rRNA gene sequence and PCR confirmation.
PMID : 8573517 DOI : 10.1099/00207713-46-1-341
In order to develop a PCR method to detect Fusobacterium prausnitzii in human feces and to clarify the phylogenetic position of this species, its 16S rRNA gene sequence was determined. The sequence described in this paper is different from the 16S rRNA gene sequence is specific for F. prausnitzii, and the results of this assay confirmed that F. prausnitzii is the most common species in human feces. However, a PCR assay based on the original GenBank sequence was negative when it was performed with two strains of F. prausnitzii obtained from the American Type Culture Collection. A phylogenetic tree based on the new 16S rRNA gene sequence was constructed. On this tree F. prausnitzii was not a member of the Fusobacterium group but was closer to some Eubacterium spp. and located between Clostridium "clusters III and IV" (M.D. Collins, P.A. Lawson, A. Willems, J.J. Cordoba, J. Fernandez-Garayzabal, P. Garcia, J. Cai, H. Hippe, and J.A.E. Farrow, Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 44:812-826, 1994).