|Taxonomy Citation ID||Reference|
|2759||Skerman, V.B.D., McGowan, V., and Sneath, P.H.A. (editors). "Approved lists of bacterial names." Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. (1980) 30:225-420. [No PubMed record available.]||9575||
( 1998 )
PCR fingerprinting of whole genomes: the spacers between the 16S and 23S rRNA genes and of intergenic tRNA gene regions reveal a different intraspecific genomic variability of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus licheniformis [corrected].
PMID : 9542081 DOI : 10.1099/00207713-48-1-107
Genomic diversity in 21 strains of Bacillus cereus and 10 strains of Bacillus licheniformis was investigated by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis, which samples the whole genome, and by two PCR fingerprinting techniques sampling the hypervariable spacers between the conserved 16S and 23S rRNA genes of the rRNA gene operon (ITS-PCR) and regions between tRNA genes (tDNA-PCR). RAPD analysis showed a remarkable diversity among strains of B. cereus that was not observed with the rRNA and tRNA intergenic-spacer-targeted PCR, where all the strains showed practically identical fingerprints. A wide variability among the B. cereus strains was also observed in the plasmid profiles, suggesting that the genetic diversity within B. cereus species can arise from plasmid transfer. One contribution to the diversity detected by RAPD analysis was determined by the presence of large extrachromosomal elements that were amplified during RAPD analysis as shown by Southern hybridization experiments. In contrast to the strains of B. cereus, the 10 strains of B. licheniformis were grouped into two clusters which were the same with all the methods employed. The 16S rRNA genes were identical in all 10 strains when examined using single strand conformation polymorphism analysis after digestion with Alul and Rsal. From these data we hypothesize two different evolutionary schemes for the two species.
|59080||Baek, I., Lee, K., Goodfellow, M., and Chun, J. Comparative genomic and phylogenomic analyses clarify relationships within and between Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis: proposal for the recognition of two bacillus thuringiensis genomovars." Front. Microbiol. (2019) 10:1978.|
|9010||Frankland, G.C., and Frankland, P.F. "Studies on some new microorganisms obtained from air." Royal Soc. London Phil. Trans., Ser. B, Biol. Sci. (1887) 178:257-287. [No PubMed record available.]||12026||
( 2003 )
Genome sequence of Bacillus cereus and comparative analysis with Bacillus anthracis.
PMID : 12721630 DOI : 10.1038/nature01582 DOI : 10.1038/nature01582
Bacillus cereus is an opportunistic pathogen causing food poisoning manifested by diarrhoeal or emetic syndromes. It is closely related to the animal and human pathogen Bacillus anthracis and the insect pathogen Bacillus thuringiensis, the former being used as a biological weapon and the latter as a pesticide. B. anthracis and B. thuringiensis are readily distinguished from B. cereus by the presence of plasmid-borne specific toxins (B. anthracis and B. thuringiensis) and capsule (B. anthracis). But phylogenetic studies based on the analysis of chromosomal genes bring controversial results, and it is unclear whether B. cereus, B. anthracis and B. thuringiensis are varieties of the same species or different species. Here we report the sequencing and analysis of the type strain B. cereus ATCC 14579. The complete genome sequence of B. cereus ATCC 14579 together with the gapped genome of B. anthracis A2012 enables us to perform comparative analysis, and hence to identify the genes that are conserved between B. cereus and B. anthracis, and the genes that are unique for each species. We use the former to clarify the phylogeny of the cereus group, and the latter to determine plasmid-independent species-specific markers.