|Taxonomy Citation ID||Reference|
|7595||Su, Y., and Yamada, K.: Bull. Agric. Chem. Soc. Japan (1960) 24:69-74. [No PubMed record available.]|
|7597||Amador et al. (1999) propose the transfer of "Brevibacterium lactofermentum" to "Corynebacterium lactofermentum" on the basis of studies involving "B. lactofermentum" strains ATCC 13869 and DSM 20412. However, the ATCC catalogue of strains lists ATCC 13869 as C. glutamicum. Moreover, Liebl et al. (1991) have previously transferred "B. lactofermentum" strains DSM 20412 and DSM 1412 to C. glutamicum.|
|1862||The Prokaryotes (2nd edition) p. 1158 discusses the nomenclatural status of Brevibacterium flavum and Brevibacterium lactofermentum: "Their systematic classification has not been clarified but numerous data exist [citations listed below] indicating their close relatedness, if not identity, with Corynebacterium glutamicum: C. lilium, Brevibacterium flavum, B. lactofermentum, and B. divaricatum. Of the nomenclatural species B. flavum, B. lactofermentum, B. divaricatum, only B. divaricatum is included in the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names (Skerman et al., 1980), and none is a true member of the genus Brevibacterium. Therefore, data obtained with these species will be included with the discussion of the properties of Corynebacterium glutamicum." Abe et al. (1967) J. Gen. Appl. Microbiol. 13:279-301. Suzuki et al. (1981) Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 31:131-138. Minnikin et al. (1978) in "Coryneform bacteria" Academic Press, London.|
|5249||Okumura, S. et al. "Studies on the L-glutamic acid fermentation. Part I. The new bacteria of the genus Brevibacterium isolated from the nature to produce L-glutamic acid." J. Agric. Chem. Soc. Jpn. (1962) 36:141-159. [No PubMed record available.]||3014||
( 1991 )
Transfer of Brevibacterium divaricatum DSM 20297T, "Brevibacterium flavum" DSM 20411, "Brevibacterium lactofermentum" DSM 20412 and DSM 1412, and Corynebacterium glutamicum and their distinction by rRNA gene restriction patterns.
PMID : 1713055 DOI : 10.1099/00207713-41-2-255
The results of DNA-DNA hybridization and chemotaxonomic studies indicated that the glutamic acid producers Brevibacterium divaricatum DSM 20297T (T=type strain), "Brevibacterium flavum" DSM 20411, "Brevibacterium lactofermentum" DSM 1412 and DSM 20412, Corynebacterium lilium DSM 20137T, and Corynebacterium glutamicum DSM 20300T and DSM 20163 are members of the same species. It is proposed that all of these strains should be classified in the species Corynebacterium glutamicum. Another glutamic acid-producing strain, Corynebacterium callunae DSM 20147T, was not related at the species level to C. glutamicum and should retain its separate species status. A restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis in which oligonucleotides targeted against conserved regions of 16S and 23S rRNA genes were used as hybridizing probes distinguished the individual strains. This method may be a helpful tool for strain identification.
|5266||Skerman, V.B.D., McGowan, V., and Sneath, P.H.A. (editors): "Approved lists of bacterial names." Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. (1980) 30:225-420. [No PubMed record available.]|
|7594||Abe, S., Takayama, K., and Kinoshita, S. "Taxonomical studies on glutamic acid-producing bacteria." J. Gen. Appl. Microbiol. (1967) 13:279-301. [No PubMed record available.]|
|5263||Fukuda H. "Method for producing L-glutamic acid." U.S. Pat. 3,623,951 dated Nov. 30, 1971.||3018||
( 1999 )
Structure and organization of the rrnD operon of 'Brevibacterium lactofermentum': analysis of the 16S rRNA gene.
PMID : 10220171 DOI : 10.1099/13500872-145-4-915
Five rRNA operons (rrn) were found by hybridization in the genome of 'Brevibacterium lactofermentum' ATCC 13869 and Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032. 'B. lactofermentum' DSM 20412 differed from the other corynebacteria tested in showing six hybridizing BamHI bands. Two of the rrn operons (rrnD and rrnE) were located in a single cosmid. Sequencing of the rrnD operon showed that it contains a complete 16S rRNA-23S RNA-5S rRNA gene cluster. Phylogenetic studies using the complete 16S rRNA sequence showed that 'B. lactofermentum' is closely related to several species of the genus Corynebacterium but only distantly related to the type species Brevibacterium linens and the authors suggest that it should be reclassified as Corynebacterium lactofermentum. The 5' end of mature 16S rRNA was identified by primer extension. Sequence elements similar to those of mycobacteria implicated in transcription antitermination (Boxes A, B, C) and in processing of the pre-rRNA to 16S rRNA were identified. An open reading frame encoding an rpoD-like sigma factor (named SigC) different from the previously reported SigA and SigB proteins was found upstream of rrnD in the opposite orientation. Both rpoD and sigC seem to be expressed from a bidirectional promoter region.
|5262||Zobell, C.E., and Upham, H.C. "A list of marine bacteria including descriptions of sixty new species." Bull. Scripps Inst. Oceanogr. (1944) 5: 239-292. [No PubMed record available.]||5261||
( 2002 )
Intraspecific diversity of Brevibacterium linens, Corynebacterium glutamicum and Rhodococcus erythropolis based on partial 16S rDNA sequence analysis and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy.
PMID : 11988527 DOI : 10.1099/00221287-148-5-1523
The intraspecific diversity of 31 strains of Brevibacterium linens, 27 strains of Corynebacterium glutamicum and 29 strains of Rhodococcus erythropolis was determined by partial 16S rDNA sequence analysis and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. As a prerequisite for the analyses, 27 strains derived from culture collections which had carried invalid or wrong species designations were reclassified in accordance with polyphasic taxonomical data. FT-IR spectroscopy proved to be a rapid and reliable method for screening for similar isolates and for identifying these actinomycetes at the species level. Two main conclusions emerged from the analyses. (1) Comparison of intraspecific 16S rDNA similarities suggested that R. erythropolis strains have a very low diversity, B. linens displays high diversity and C. glutamicum occupies an intermediate position. (2) No correlation of FT-IR spectral similarity and 16S rDNA sequence similarity below the species level (i.e. between strains of one species) was observed. Therefore, diversification of 16S rDNA sequences and microevolutionary change of the cellular components detected by FT-IR spectroscopy appear to be de-coupled.