|Taxonomy Citation ID||Reference|
( 2008 )
The genome sequence of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis reveals adaptations for milk utilization within the infant microbiome.
PMID : 19033196 DOI : 10.1073/pnas.0809584105 PMC : PMC2596198 DOI : 10.1073/pnas.0809584105 PMC : PMC2596198
Following birth, the breast-fed infant gastrointestinal tract is rapidly colonized by a microbial consortium often dominated by bifidobacteria. Accordingly, the complete genome sequence of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis ATCC15697 reflects a competitive nutrient-utilization strategy targeting milk-borne molecules which lack a nutritive value to the neonate. Several chromosomal loci reflect potential adaptation to the infant host including a 43 kbp cluster encoding catabolic genes, extracellular solute binding proteins and permeases predicted to be active on milk oligosaccharides. An examination of in vivo metabolism has detected the hallmarks of milk oligosaccharide utilization via the central fermentative pathway using metabolomic and proteomic approaches. Finally, conservation of gene clusters in multiple isolates corroborates the genomic mechanism underlying milk utilization for this infant-associated phylotype.
( 2008 )
Proposal to reclassify the three biotypes of Bifidobacterium longum as three subspecies: Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum subsp. nov., Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis comb. nov. and Bifidobacterium longum subsp. suis comb. nov.
PMID : 18398167 DOI : 10.1099/ijs.0.65319-0
In the year 2002, Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium infantis and Bifidobacterium suis were unified into a single species, Bifidobacterium longum, preserving the former species names through the creation of the three biotypes 'longum', 'infantis' and 'suis'. Consequently, the use of the species names B. infantis and B. suis was to be discontinued. The above taxonomic rearrangement of B. longum was based on DNA-DNA hybridizations and 16S rRNA and HSP60 gene sequence analysis. However, a variety of other genotypic techniques including ribotyping, amplified rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA), randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR, BOX-PCR, PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), comparison of the recA, tuf and ldh gene sequences, plasmid profiling and considerable variation in carbohydrate fermentation patterns as well as results of starch and PAGE electrophoresis experiments clearly discriminate former B. longum, B. infantis and B. suis strains. In the present paper we compile this published information and propose the description of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum subsp. nov., Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis comb. nov. and Bifidobacterium longum subsp. suis comb. nov. The International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes Subcommittee on the taxonomy of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and related organisms is in favour of this proposal. The type strains of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum subsp. nov., subsp. infantis comb. nov. and subsp. suis comb. nov. are E194b (variant a)T (ATCC 15707T=DSM 20219T), S12T (=ATCC 15697T=DSM 20088T) and Su859T (ATCC 27533T=DSM 20211T), respectively.
( 1993 )
Phenotypic and genomic analyses of human strains belonging or related to Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium infantis, and Bifidobacterium breve.
PMID : 8347514 DOI : 10.1099/00207713-43-3-565
A numerical analysis based on phenotypic characteristics (89 enzymatic tests and 49 carbohydrate acidification tests), in which experimental strips from Biomerieux-API, La Balme les Grottes, France, were used, was performed to characterize 82 new isolates belonging or related to Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium infantis, and Bifidobacterium breve. A total of 72 strains were isolated from child or adult feces, and the other strains were obtained from human vaginas and bronchi. In this study we also included 38 type and reference strains that were representative of all species of the genus Bifidobacterium and 6 strains belonging to the genus Lactobacillus. DNA-DNA relationships between B. longum and B. infantis were determined by using 19 strains related to these species, as determined by the numerical analysis. The degree of DNA binding was determined by the S1 nuclease method. The phenotypic study revealed that there were six main clusters, which were subdivided into nine subclusters. Subcluster Va contained the type strains of B. longum and B. infantis. The DNA-DNA relatedness values of some of the new isolates were very similar to the DNA-DNA relatedness values of the type strain of B. longum. On the basis of these data, it was difficult to isolate B. infantis strains and then to define B. infantis as a single species separated from B. longum. Subclusters IVb to IVf comprised reference strains of B. breve. Cluster III and subcluster Ia were not identified.
( 2002 )
Unification of Bifidobacterium infantis and Bifidobacterium suis as Bifidobacterium longum.
PMID : 12508852 DOI : 10.1099/00207713-52-6-1945
The relationships between Bifidobacterium infantis, Bifidobacterium longum and Bifidobacterium suis were examined by means of carbohydrate fermentation, DNA-DNA hybridization, ribotyping and random amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR (RAPD-PCR). The levels of DNA-DNA hybridization among the strains of B. infantis, B. longum and B. suis used in this study were 67-81% under optimal conditions (42 degrees C) and 63-85% under stringent conditions (52 degrees C). Although the strains showed varied carbohydrate-fermentation patterns, the three species were divided into three types, namely the infantis type, the longum type and the suis type, by ribotyping and RAPD-PCR. On the basis of these results, strains of B. infantis, B. longum and B. suis were recognized as distinct groups within a single species. It is concluded that B. infantis and B. suis should be unified as B. longum, the latter species being divided into three biotypes, the infantis type, the longum type and the suis type, by molecular methods.
( 2011 )
Bifidobacteria can protect from enteropathogenic infection through production of acetate.
PMID : 21270894 DOI : 10.1038/nature09646 DOI : 10.1038/nature09646
The human gut is colonized with a wide variety of microorganisms, including species, such as those belonging to the bacterial genus Bifidobacterium, that have beneficial effects on human physiology and pathology. Among the most distinctive benefits of bifidobacteria are modulation of host defence responses and protection against infectious diseases. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects have barely been elucidated. To investigate these mechanisms, we used mice associated with certain bifidobacterial strains and a simplified model of lethal infection with enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7, together with an integrated 'omics' approach. Here we show that genes encoding an ATP-binding-cassette-type carbohydrate transporter present in certain bifidobacteria contribute to protecting mice against death induced by E. coli O157:H7. We found that this effect can be attributed, at least in part, to increased production of acetate and that translocation of the E. coli O157:H7 Shiga toxin from the gut lumen to the blood was inhibited. We propose that acetate produced by protective bifidobacteria improves intestinal defence mediated by epithelial cells and thereby protects the host against lethal infection.
|21527||Klein, G. "International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes Subcommittee on the Taxonomy of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and Related Organisms. Minutes of the meetings, 1 and 2 April 2005, Stuttgart-Hohenheim, Germany." Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. (2006) 56:2501-2503.|
|8921||Reuter, G. "Vergleichenden Untersuchung uber die Bifidus-Flora im Sauglings und Erwachsenenstuhl." Zentralbl. Bakteriol. Parasitenkd. Infektionskr. Hyg. Abt. I (1963) 191:486-507 (in German). [No PubMed record available.]|
|21530||Skerman, V.B.D., McGowan, V., and Sneath, P.H.A. (editors). "Approved lists of bacterial names." Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. (1980) 30:225-420. [Access through 'Approved Lists' LinkOut below]|
|21528||Lindstrom, K., and Martinez-Romero, E. "International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes Subcommittee on the taxonomy of Agrobacterium and Rhizobium." Minutes of the meeting, 23-24 July 2006, Arhus, Denmark." Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. (2007) 57:1365-1366.|